Text by Nicole Bouglouan


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John Gould: 1804-1881

Source: From Gould's 'A Monograph of the Trochilidae or Family of Hummingbirds', Supplement (1880-87) Hart after Gould.

Joseph Smit : 1836-1929

Source: https://archive.org/details/ibis13brit/page/180/mode/2up?view=theater

Sources of the text:

Avibase (Lepage Denis)

Birdlife International – Data Zone


Endemic breeding birds of Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile

Hummingbirds of the Juan Fernández Islands: natural history, evolution and population status


La « myrtisylve » de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chili), une foręt en voie de disparition rapide

Juan Fernández Islands Temperate Forests 

CASCADA expediciones




Juan Fernández Archipelago National Park

Conservation of the Juan Fernandez firecrown and its island habitat

Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia


Bird species list: Avibase (Lepage Denis)

Endemic species:

Juan Fernández Firecrown - Sephanoides fernandensis - Colibri robinson

Juan Fernández Tit-Tyrant - Anairetes fernandezianus - Taurillon de Juan Fernández

Masafuera Rayadito - Aphrastura masafuerae - Synallaxe de Masafuera


Endemic nesters:

Juan Fernandez Petrel - Pterodroma externa - Pétrel de Juan Fernandez

Stejneger's Petrel - Pterodroma longirostris - Pétrel de Stejneger


Other Bird species:

American Golden Plover – Pluvialis dominica – Pluvier bronzé

American Kestrel – Falco sparverius – Crécerelle d’Amérique

Antarctic Prion - Pachyptila desolata - Prion de la Désolation

Arctic Tern - Sterna paradisaea – Sterne arctique

Austral Blackbird - Curaeus curaeus - Carouge austral

Austral Thrush - Turdus falcklandii - Merle austral

Black-browed Albatross - Thalassarche melanophris - Albatros à sourcils noirs 

Blackish Oystercatcher – Haematopus ater - Huitrier noir

Black-necked Swan - Cygnus melanocoryphus - Cygne à cou noir

Buller’s Albatross - Thalassarche bulleri - Albatros de Buller

Buller's Shearwater - Ardenna bulleri - Puffin de Buller

California Quail - Callipepla californica - Colin de Californie

Cape Petrel - Daption capense - Damier du Cap

Chatham Island Albatross - Thalassarche eremita - Albatros des Chatham

Chilean Skua - Stercorarius chilensis - Labbe du Chili

Cocoi Heron - Ardea cocoi - Héron cocoi

Common Redstart - Phoenicurus phoenicurus - Rougequeue à front blanc

Coscoroba Swan – Coscoroba coscoroba - Coscoroba blanc

Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant - Muscisaxicola maclovianus - Dormilon bistré

Flesh-footed Shearwater - Ardenna carneipes - Puffin à pieds pâles

Gentoo Penguin - Pygoscelis papua - Manchot papou

Green-backed Firecrown - Sephanoides sephaniodes - Colibri du Chili

Grey-flanked Cinclodes - Cinclodes oustaleti - Cinclode d’Oustalet

Grey Noddy - Anous albivitta - Noddi gris

Grey Petrel - Procellaria cinerea - Puffin gris

Grey Plover - Pluvialis squatarola - Pluvier argenté

Guanay Cormorant - Leucocarbo bougainvillii - Cormoran de Bougainville

House Sparrow - Passer domesticus - Moineau domestique

Humboldt Penguin - Spheniscus humboldti - Manchot de Humboldt

Juan Fernandez Petrel - Pterodroma externa - Pétrel de Juan Fernandez

Kelp Gull - Larus dominicanus – Goéland dominicain

Kermadec Petrel - Pterodroma neglecta - Pétrel des Kermadec

Long-tailed Jaeger - Stercorarius longicaudus - Labbe à longue queue

Magellanic Penguin - Spheniscus magellanicus - Manchot de Magellan

Manx Shearwater - Puffinus puffinus - Puffin des Anglais

Masatierra Petrel – Pterodroma defilippiana – Pétrel de Filippi

Masked Booby - Sula dactylatra - Fou masqué

Northern Giant-Petrel – Macronectes halli – Pétrel de Hall

Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus - Faucon pèlerin

Peruvian Pelican - Pelecanus thagus - Pélican thage

Phoenix Petrel - Pterodroma alba - Pétrel à poitrine blanche

Pink-footed Shearwater - Ardenna creatopus - Puffin à pieds roses

Pomarine Skua or Jaeger - Stercorarius  pomarinus - Labbe pomarin

Providence Petrel - Pterodroma solandri - Pétrel de Solander

Red-billed Tropicbird – Phaethon aethereus – Phaéton à bec rouge

Red-fronted Coot - Fulica rufifrons - Foulque à front rouge

Red-gartered Coot - Fulica armillata - Foulque à jarretières

Red Phalarope - Phalaropus fulicarius - Phalarope à bec large

Red-tailed Tropicbird - Phaethon rubricauda - Phaéton à brins rouges

Rock Dove or Rock Pigeon - Columba livia - Pigeon biset

Rufous-collared Sparrow – Zonotrichia capensis - Bruant chingolo

Salvin's Albatross - Thalassarche salvini - Albatros de Salvin

Sanderling – Calidris alba - Bécasseau sanderling

Short-eared Owl - Asio flammeus - Hibou des marais

Slender-billed Prion or Thin-billed Prion - Pachyptila belcheri - Prion de Belcher

Sooty Shearwater - Ardenna grisea - Puffin fuligineux

Sooty Tern - Onychoprion fuscatus - Sterne fuligineuse

Southern Fulmar - Fulmarus glacialoides - Fulmar argenté

Southern Giant Petrel - Macronectes giganteus - Pétrel géant

Southern Lapwing - Vanellus chilensis - Vanneau téro

Southern Royal Albatross - Diomedea epomophora - Albatros royal (du Sud)

Spectacled Duck or Bronze-winged Duck - Speculanas specularis - Canard à lunettes

Spotted Rail – Pardirallus maculates - Râle tacheté

Stejneger's Petrel - Pterodroma longirostris - Pétrel de Stejneger 

Swainson’s Thrush - Catharus ustulatus - Grive à dos olive

Swallow-tailed Gull - Creagrus furcatus - Mouette à queue fourchue

Tufted Tit-Tyrant - Anairetes parulus - Taurillon mésange

Turkey Vulture - Cathartes aura - Urubu à tête rouge

Variable Hawk - Geranoaetus polyosoma – Buse tricolore

Wandering Albatross - Diomedea exulans - Albatros hurleur 

Western Cattle Egret - Bubulcus ibis - Héron garde-bœufs

Westland Petrel - Procellaria westlandica - Pétrel du Westland

Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus – Courlis corlieu

White-bellied Storm-Petrel - Fregetta grallaria - Océanite à ventre blanc

White-chinned Petrel - Procellaria aequinoctialis - Puffin à menton blanc

White-faced Storm-Petrel - Pelagodroma marina - Océanite frégate

White-tailed Tropicbird – Phaethon lepturus – Phaéton à bec jaune

White-tufted Grebe - Rollandia rolland - Grèbe de Rolland

Wilson’s Storm-Petrel - Oceanites oceanicus - Océanite de Wilson




Juan Fernandez Petrel



The Juan Fernández Islands are located in the Southern Pacific Ocean, 670 km off Chilean coast. The archipelago is composed of three main islands named Robinson Crusoe Island, Alejandro Selkirk Island and Santa Clara Island, and several smaller ones. These volcanic islands rise steeply out of the Pacific. Few beaches and a small number of protected bays are probably formed by ancient volcanic craters.
The total area is about 181 km². The small population (about 600) resides in San Juan Bautista the capital, on the north coast.    

The name comes from the Spanish sailor Juan Fernández, who discovered the archipelago on 22 November 1574 while sailing between Peru and Valparaíso. At this period, the islands were named Más Afuera, Más a Tierra, and Islote de Santa Clara.  

The Juan Fernández Islands have a subtropical climate, strongly influenced by fluctuations of the cold subantarctic Humboldt Ocean Current passing powerfully between the islands and the mainland, and the south east trade winds, both creating high-winter and low-summer rainfall pattern and a stable temperature environment (around 15,4°C). Flora and fauna resemble mostly those found in C and S Pacific rather than those of the South American continent.  

Masked Booby

The islands are covered with both native and introduced species of grasses and weeds on slopes at lower altitudes. The lowland is covered with tall forest where several tree species are found such as Drimys confertifolia and Myrceugenia fernandeziana on Robinson Crusoe Island, and Myrceugenia schulzei, endemic to Alejandro Selkirk Island. The three species are flowering plant in the family Winteraceae and endemic to the ecoregion.  
On Robinson Crusoe Island, the largest of the islands with 93km², the endemic flora and fauna are mainly only present near the almost vertical wall at top of El Yunque Mount which is the highest site at 916 metres above sea level. 
Alejandro Selkirk Island is 50 km², and the highest peak is Los Inocentes at 1319 metres.
Santa Clara is the smallest with 2,2 km² and 350 metres of elevation.

Many plants are related to plants found in South America, New Zealand and Australia. The vegetated areas include grassland and shrubland at lower elevations, mainly tall and montane forests at middle elevations, and alpine shrubland at the highest points. Endemic tree-fern species (Dicksonia and Thyrsopteris) are predominant in tree-fern forests. The endemic Chonta palm (Juania australis) is endangered.   

Juan Fernández Firecrown


John Gould: 1804-1881

About the avifauna, two hummingbird species including the endemic, Critically Endangered Juan Fernández Firecrown and the continental Green-backed Firecrown can be found.
The endemic species Juan Fernández Firecrown is now extinct on Alejandro Selkirk Island, whereas the population on Robinson Crusoe Island has greatly declined in recent decades. It depends on the island’s native forests to survive.     
On the other hand, the population of the Green-backed Firecrown is suspected to have increased on Robinson Crusoe Island, and it is now established on Alejandro Selkirk Island.     

Green-backed Firecrown

Two endemic breeding species including the Stejneger's Petrel and the Juan Fernandez Petrel are the entire known breeding populations of these species. They are endemic breeders to Alejandro Selkirk Island, and both species are listed as Vulnerable.

Stejneger's Petrel

Two other species, the Masafuera Rayadito of family Furnariidae (Critically Endangered) on Alejandro Selkirk Island, and the Juan Fernández Tit-Tyrant of family Tyrannidae (Near Threatened) on Robinson Crusoe Island, are living in the archipelago.

Juan Fernández Tit-Tyrant
Masafuera Rayadito
Joseph Smit : 1836-1929

The Juan Fernández Islands are very important locations for six breeding seabirds. Among them the Masatierra Petrelor De Filippi's Petrel, and the Pink-footed Shearwater, both classified as Vulnerable.

Masatierra Petrel or

De Filippi's Petrel

Two waves of introduced animals by colonists such as goats, rats, cats and dogs in the 1600s and cattle, sheep, rabbits and coatis in the 1800s, involved the decline of both flora and fauna and have increased erosion throughout these islands.       
A large part of the native forest has been cleared below 500 metres of elevation, whereas on Robinson Crusoe Island, introduced plant species, especially bramble, provide the only vegetal cover. Today, only 10% of the island is covered with natural vegetation.   

These islands are a National Park since 1935, and a designated UNESCO Biosphere Reserve since 1977. The archipelago is one of the most ecologically vulnerable ecosystems in the world. 
Conservation programs are underway to remove invasive species from the Juan Fernández Archipelago.  

Variable Hawk