Southern Brown Kiwi

Simon Tan
PBase Bird galleries



New Zealand is an island country with two main islands, North Island and South Island, separated by the Cook Strait, and numerous smaller islands. It is situated in SW Pacific Ocean, about 1500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea.
This region developed a distinctive biodiversity of animals and plants. There are numerous unique bird species.

South Island is the largest. It is divided by the Southern Alps in which the Mount Cook reaches 3754 metres at its highest point. There are 18 other peaks of more than 3000 metres.
The east side has plains, whereas the west side has rough coastlines.

North Island is less mountainous but marked by volcanism. The Mount Ruapehu is an active volcano of 2797 metres. A large lake occurs near the centre of the island.

The climate of this region varies from cool temperate to warm temperate, with temperatures between 8 and 16 °C from south to north.
The rainfall occurs mainly along the west coast of South Island.

Before the arrival of humans, most of the land was covered in forest. Only the high alpine areas were treeless. The forest now occupies only 20 percent of the land, after massive deforestation by humans.

The lack of predators led some birds such as Kiwi, Kakapo and Takahe to become flightless. Introduction of rats and other mammalian predators by humans led to the extinction of several bird species.

New Zealand conservationists have managed several methods to help the wildlife recover, with sanctuaries, pest control and several other active measures for the best protection of animals and plants.

Other species endemic to this region:

Antipodes (Green) Parakeet - Cyanoramphus unicolor -Perruche des Antipodes

Auckland Island Rail - Lewinia muelleri - Râle des Auckland

Auckland (Islands) Shag - Leucocarbo colensoi - Cormoran des Auckland

Auckland Teal - Anas aucklandica - Sarcelle brune  

Black Petrel or Parkinson’s Petrel - Procellaria parkinsoni - Puffin de Parkinson

Bounty Island Shag - Leucocarbo ranfurlyi - Cormoran de Bounty   

Buller's Shearwater - Puffinus bulleri - Puffin de Buller

Campbell (Island) Shag - Leucocarbo campbelli - Cormoran de Campbell

Campbell Teal - Anas nesiotis - Sarcelle de Campbell

Chatham Island Albatross - Thalassarche eremita - Albatros des Chatham

Chatham Island Gerygone (Warbler) – Gerygone albofrontata - Gérygone des Chatham

Chatham Island Pigeon – Hemiphaga chathamensis – Carpophage des Chatham

Chatham Island Robin or Black Robin - Petroica traversi - Miro des Chatham

Chatham (Island) Snipe – Coenocorypha pusilla - Bécassine des Chatham

Chatham Petrel - Pterodroma axillaris - Pétrel des Chatham

Cook's Petrel - Pterodroma cookii - Pétrel de Cook

Fiordland Crested Penguin - Eudyptes pachyrhynchus - Gorfou du Fiordland

Flesh-footed Shearwater - Puffinus carneipes - Puffin à pieds pâles

Long-tailed Cuckoo or Koel - Urodynamis taitensis - Coucou de Nouvelle Zélande

Malherbe's Parakeet - Cyanoramphus malherbi - Perruche de Malherbe

Masked Lapwing or Spur-winged Plover - Vanellus miles - Vanneau soldat

Morepork - Ninox novaeseelandiae - Ninoxe boubouk

New Zealand Bellbird - Anthornis melanura - Méliphage carillonneur

New Zealand Falcon - Falco novaeseelandiae - Faucon de Nouvelle-Zélande

New Zealand Fernbird - Megalurus punctatus - Mégalure matata

New Zealand Pigeon - Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae - Carpophage de Nouvelle-Zélande

New Zealand or Australasian Pipit - Anthus novaeseelandiae - Pipit de NZ ou Pipit austral

New Zealand Teal - Anas chlorotis – Sarcelle de Nouvelle Zélande

Reischek’s Parakeet - Cyanoramphus hochstetteri - Perruche de Reischek

Subantarctic Snipe or NZ Snipe - Coenocorypha aucklandica - Bécassine des Auckland

Swamp Harrier or Australasian Harrier - Circus approximans - Busard de Gould

Tomtit - Petroica macrocephala - Miro mésange

Tui - Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae - Méliphage tui ou Tui cravate-frisée

Westland Petrel - Procellaria westlandica - Pétrel du Westland

Yellow-fronted (crowned) Parakeet - Cyanoramphus auriceps - Perruche à tête d'or


Ken Havard
My Bird Gallery & Flickr gallery 1 & Flickr gallery 2

New Zealand Falcon

Otto Plantema
Trips around the world

Endemic bird species:

Black-billed Gull - Chroicocephalus bulleri - Mouette de Buller

Black-fronted Tern - Chlidonias albostriatus - Guifette ou Sterne des galets      

Black Stilt - Himantopus novaezelandiae - Échasse noire

Blue Duck - Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos - Canard bleu ou Hyménolaime bleu

Bronze Shag or Otago Shag - Leucocarbo chalconotus - Cormoran bronzé

Double-banded Plover or Banded Dotterel - Charadrius bicinctus - Pluvier (gravelot) à double collier

Foveaux Shag - Leucocarbo Stewarti - Cormoran de Foveaux

Grey Gerygone or Grey Warbler - Gerygone igata - Gérygone de Nouvelle- Zélande

Kakapo - Strigops habroptila - Strigops kakapo

Kea – Nestor notabilis – Nestor kea



Great Spotted Kiwi - Apteryx haastii - Kiwi roa

Little Spotted Kiwi - Apteryx owenii - Kiwi d'Owen

North Island Brown Kiwi - Apteryx mantelli - Kiwi de Mantell

Okarito Brown Kiwi - Apteryx rowi - Kiwi d'Okarito

Southern Brown Kiwi - Apteryx australis - Kiwi austral


Malherbe's Parakeet - Cyanoramphus malherbi - Perruche de Malherbe

New Zealand Brown Creeper or Pipipi - Mohoua novaeseelandiae - Mohoua pipipi

New Zealand Fantail - Rhipidura fuliginosa - Rhipidure à collier

New Zealand Grebe or NZ Dabchick - Poliocephalus rufopectus - Grèbe de Nouvelle-Zélande   

New Zealand Kaka – Nestor meridionalis – Nestor superbe

New Zealand Plover or NZ Dotterel - Charadrius obscurus - Pluvier ou Gravelot roux

New Zealand Robin - Petroica australis - Miro rubisole

New Zealand Rockwren or South Island Wren - Xenicus gilviventris - Xénique des rochers 

New Zealand Scaup - Aythya novaeseelandiae - Fuligule de Nouvelle-Zélande 

New Zealand Storm-Petrel - Fregetta maoriana - Océanite de Nouvelle-Zélande

North Island Kokako - Callaeas wilsoni - Glaucope de Wilson

Northern Royal Albatross- Diomedea sanfordi - Albatros royal du Nord

North Island Saddleback - Philesturnus rufusater - Créadion de Lesson

Paradise Shelduck – Tadorna variegata – Tadorne de paradis

Red-crowned Parakeet - Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae - Perruche de Sparrman  

Rifleman - Acanthisitta chloris - Xénique grimpeur

Rough-faced Shag or NZ King Shag - Leucocarbo carunculatus - Cormoran caronculé

Snares (Island) Snipe - Coenocorypha huegeli - Bécassine des Snares

South Island (Pied) Oystercatcher - Haematopus finschi - Huîtrier de Finsch

South Island Saddleback - Philesturnus carunculatus - Créadion rounoir

South Island Takahe - Porphyrio hochstetteri - Talève takahé

Spotted Shag - Phalacrocorax punctatus - Cormoran moucheté

Stitchbird - Notiomystis cincta - Méliphage hihi

Variable Oystercatcher - Haematopus unicolor - Huîtrier variable  

Weka - Gallirallus australis - Râle wéka

White-fronted Tern - Sterna striata - Sterne tara

Whitehead - Mohoua albicilla - Mohoua à tête blanche

Wrybill - Anarhynchus frontalis - Pluvier anarhynque

Yellow-eyed Penguin - Megadyptes antipodes - Manchot antipode
Yellowhead - Mohoua ochrocephala - Mohoua à tête jaune

Some introduced species :

Australian Magpie – Gymnorhina tibicen – Cassican flûteur

California Quail - Callipepla californica - Colin de Californie

Chaffinch – Fringilla coelebs – Pinson des arbres

Common Blackbird - Turdus merula - Merle noir

Common Myna - Acridotheres tristis – Martin triste

Common Pheasant - Phasianus colchicus - Faisan de Colchide

Common Redpoll - Acanthis flammea - Sizerin flammé

Common Starling - Sturnus vulgaris - Etourneau sansonnet

Crimson Rosella – Platycercus elegans – Perruche de Pennant

Dunnock – Prunella modularis – Accenteur mouchet

European Goldfinch - Carduelis carduelis - Chardonneret élégant

European Greenfinch – Carduelis chloris – Verdier d’Europe

Galah – Eolophus roseicapilla – Cacatoès rosalbin

Giant Kingfisher - Megaceryle maxima - Martin-pêcheur géant

Grey Partridge - Perdix perdix - Perdrix grise

House Sparrow - Passer domesticus - Moineau domestique

Indian Peafowl - Pavo cristatus - Paon bleu

Little Owl - Athene noctua - Chevêche d’Athéna

Mallard – Anas platyrhynchos – Canard colvert

Northern Bobwhite - Colinus virginianus - Colin de Virginie

Red-legged Partridge – Alectoris rufa – Perdrix rouge

Sky Lark – Alauda arvensis – Alouette des champs

Songthrush – Turdus philomelos – Grive musicienne

Sulphur-crested Cockatoo - Cacatua galerita - Cacatoès à huppe jaune

Yellowhammer - Emberiza citrinella - Bruant jaune


Related articles:

Family Acanthisittidae (New Zealand wrens)

Family Apterygidae (New Zealand Kiwis)

Family Callaeidae (Saddleback, Kokako and Huia)

Family Mohouidae (Whitehead, Yellowhead and Pipipi)

Family Strigopidae (Kea, New Zealand Kaka, Kakapo)


Extinct endemic bird species:

Auckland Islands Merganser - Mergus australis - Harle austral

Bush Wren - Xenicus longipes - Xénique des buissons (Acanthisittidae)

Haast's Eagle - Harpagornis moorei - Aigle de Haast

Huia - Heteralocha acutirostris - Huia dimorphe (Callaeidae)

Laughing Owl - Sceloglaux albifacies - Ninoxe rieuse

New Zealand (Little) Bittern - Ixobrychus novaezelandiae - Blongios à dos noir

New Zealand Quail - Coturnix novaezelandiae - Caille de Nouvelle Zélande

North Island Piopio - Turnagra tanagra - Piopio de Schlegel

South Island Kokako - Callaeas cinerea - Glaucope cendré ( Callaeidae)

South Island Piopio - Turnagra capensis - Piopio de Nouvelle Zélande

Stephens Island Wren - Xenicus lyalli - Xénique de Stephens (Acanthisittidae)


Thank you to Ian McHenry for his kind help and contribution
His website: My New Zealand Birds

Photographers for this page:

Ken Havard
His bird pictures on IBC

Otto Plantema
Trips around the world

Simon Tan
PBase Bird galleries

Nicole Bouglouan


Sources :

Avibase (Lepage Denis)

BirdLife International (BirdLife International)

New Zealand bird status between 2008 and 2012

Department of Conservation

The Natural Heritage Collection

New Zealand Birds Online

New Zealand birds and birding (Narena Olliver)

Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

KNOW YOUR NEW ZEALAND BIRDS by Lynnette Moon - New Holland Publishers – ISBN: 1869660897


Home page

Summary articles


European Goldfinch

Nicole Bouglouan